Nootropics

How to order?


I recommend ordering from http://www.powdercity.com/   2   3

 

Check out

Facebook page I started, Smart Drugs

http://nootriment.com/armodafinil

http://nootriment.com/piracetam

http://nootriment.com/noopept

Page I created dedicated to “Nootropic” Art

 

What are Nootropics?

Nootropics are a class of cognitive enhancing supplements (non-pharmaceutical) that improve concentration and boost memory, especially useful for those that may have been diagnosed with ADHD, or have memory problems. Nootropics are often used to increase attention spans, help individuals focus, and as studying aids. You will occasionally see Nootropics referred to as “smart drugs” as they are associated with increased intelligence, motivation, and mental energy. What are Nootropics and how do they work? This page will provide a basic guide to nootropics and give you an overview of how to use these supplements to enhance your mental capabilities.

I will say this: Nootropics are not a replacement for having a good diet, exercising, and getting plenty of rest. They are not a replacement for having good study habits. Nootropics should be used in conjunction with positive lifestyle choices. Okay, now that is out of the way…on to more about Nootropics.

Nootropics are broadly any type of neuro enhancing drug with very low prevalence of side effects. The actual definition of what makes a supplement a nootropic is somewhat of a loose concept. The best description comes from Belgian pharmacologists S. Giurgea and V. Skondia who invented the first Nootropic – a compound known as Piracetam – in 1963. They established the classification of Nootropics to refer to cognitive boosting substances with extremely low toxicity that can be taken for long-term use. This highlights the fact that Piracetam and other Nootropics are able to improve brain functions without any of the negative side effects associated with brain stimulants.

Piracetam (known also by the name Nootropil) is one of the best known Nootropics and makes up part of the Racetam family along with Aniracetam, Noopept, Pramiracetam and Oxiracetam. These are all synthetic compounds that have been created in lab environments, but there are also a large number of herbal and natural nootropic supplements. For example, fish oil, grape seed extract, bacopa monnieri, yerba mate and even licorice are all natural nootropics. You will often find these supplements combined together in a Nootropic Stack to further enhance their effectiveness.

How do Nootropics work?

What exactly do Nootropics do? Like most “smart drugs”, Nootropics will not instantaneously give you a higher IQ or a better intellect. But they will boost your brain functions by increasing the production of various neurotransmitters. Your brain is essentially a network of neurons connected by synapses. These neurons communicate and work together through chemicals known as neurotransmitters. When you have a higher presence of neurotransmitters, you experience improved concentration, better memory, mood elevation, increased processing ability for mental work, and longer attention spans. With continued supplementation of nootropics, you can actually alter the permanent level of these neurotransmitters in the brain thereby causing long lasting improvement to the health of your brain.

Other Nootropics show effects of vasodilation which means they increase the blood flow to your brain. This supplies your brain with more oxygen, nutrients, and glucose – the primary energy source used by the brain during long periods of focus. By raising blood flow and oxygenation, you will immediately experience greater capacity for memory and focus. This type of nootropic is especially favored among students for studying as their effects are felt immediately.

Nootropics can also show signs of neuro preservation and neuroprotection. These compounds directly affect the levels of neurotransmitters associated with slowing down the aging process. Some nootropics will result in an increase in the production of brain cells while slowing down their destruction as well. Over time, this can significantly slow down signs of aging like loss of memory and even counter the development of disorders like Alzheimer’s disease.

Below is a list of some of the most popular and best nootropic drugs that are available today. Each supplement with have its own unique mechanism of action that is distinct from other nootropics. You can either select the supplement that best matches your needs or goals, or you can combine several nootropic compounds together in what is known as a stack. A stack simply involves any pairing of substances that enhance and complement each other when taken simultaneously. Most of the pre-packaged brain boosters available will stack together several different herbal or synthetic nootropics like those listed below, but you can also buy the bulk raw powder and mix your own capsules to design a formula that is right for you.

Racetam: As mentioned previously, racetams are a class of nootropics including the widely used Piracetam (wiki), Aniracetam, Pramiracetam, and Oxiracetam. They all share a similar chemical structure with a Pyrrolidone nucleus. Racetams work by dramatically increasing levels of neurotransmitters and other chemicals required for proper brain function like glutamate and acetylcholine. They have been tested to improve cognitive function, prevent damage to brain cells from alcohol consumption and other factors, and to increase the communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.

Choline: Choline is frequently found in a nootropic stack with racetams like Piracetam and Aniracetam. Taking choline supplements will cause greater production of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter in the brain. Since Racetams result in increased uptake and demand for acetylcholine, stacking choline with this nootropic will further enhance your results. Studies have shown that choline supplementation can improve performance on memory tests as well as social behavior. Choline also plays a key role in the production of new brain cells.

Pyritinol: Pyritinol has anti-oxidant effects for supporting the long-term health of the brain. But its primary benefit is aiding glucose uptake for periods of extended mental strain. If you are studying or working for a long period of time, your brain will start to diminish its glucose (sugar) stores which are the primary way that the brain derives its energy. Psychological studies have shown that continuing to refuel your brain with glucose will improve concentration and cognitive ability during extended periods of mental work. Supplementing Pyritinol aids further in glucose uptake so that your mental energy levels are higher.

Vinpocetine: Vinpocetine has been shown as one of the most effective nootropics for improving brain blood flow. After taking Vinpocetine, the blood vessels dilate and are able to circulate more blood to the brain. This causes a number of immediately noticeable effects such as concentration boosting, better mental agility, and higher energy levels and motivation.

There are many more nootropics available out there and different ones can assist you in improving your brain in various different ways. For a full Nootropics List, keep reading this website and check out our many Nootropic reviews. Which nootropic supplement you pick is largely a matter of personal preference. You might want to check out the pre-made nootropic products like Alpha Brain or you might prefer to design your own stack by purchasing ingredients like Piracetam powder. The health and capabilities of your brain are one of the most important determining factors in a happy and successful life, so whatever you pick you can rest assured that you are making a smart investment.

 

So, what do I take?

I use a mixture of Racetam products, as not to build a tolerance, DMAE (as a source of choline), and Bacopa…those are my main go to Nootropics. I do use plenty of others—on occasion—particularly wakefulness Nootropics such as Adrafinil. I combine these with Fish oil, Krill oil, a good one-a-day vitamin, and plenty of water and exercise. I drink a little green tea every day as well.

 

2016 Nootropics Survey Results
Median rating, mean rating, and sample size for each nootropic. The larger the number in mean and median, the better the nootropic.

 

Check out

Reddit Nootropics
EROWID Nootropics
Nootropic Wiki link
Nootropics Info
Anti-aging and Nootropics

 

Articles

The Dramatic Benefits of Bacopa Increase in Helping Prevent Alzheimer’s and Dementia
The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Smart Drugs: A Nootropics Primer
Are smart drugs driving Silicon Valley?
Nootropics Aren’t Just For Tech Millionaires
Nootropic Brain Drugs Rise in Popularity for Today’s Cutthroat Corporate Climbers
Eleven Ways to Increase Your IQ (#2 is through Nootropics)
Upgrade Your Brain, Increase Your IQ
Rolling Stone story: ‘Building A Better Brain: Wired on Nootropics’, November 2012

 

A few common Nootropics

Piracetam

Clinical

Piracetam is a cyclical derivative of GABA, synthesized by converting 2-pyrrolidinone into an amide. It was discovered in 1964 by Romanian chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea, who later coined the term “nootropic” to describe the novel effects of this compound. Piracetam is the archetype of the Racetam class of nootropics. It is observed to increase cholinergic neurotransmission without exhibiting stimulant properties. Additional effects observed in research trials include the following:

◾Improves general cognition and working memory.
◾Increases oxygen utilization and glucose metabolism in the brain.
◾Slows signs of aging and reverses some forms of neuron damage.
◾Enhances cellular membrane fluidity and exerts a neuroprotective effect.

Dosage

800 mg-1200 mg, twice a day.


Noopept

Clinical

Noopept is a cycloprolylglycine-derived nootropic peptide that is related to the Racetam class of compounds. Researchers have described it as exhibiting a potency 1000x greater than that of Piracetam. It enhances cholinergic neurotransmission, heightens synaptic plasticity and is a more powerful anti-oxidant than Piracetam or Vitamin E. Additional reported effects include:

◾Improves memory function in impaired individuals.
◾Increases NGF and BDNF levels.
◾Significant neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects.
◾Reduces anxiety, fatigue and irritability while improving mood, sleep and wakefulness.
◾Reduces depression and eliminates learned helplessness.

Dosage

5 mg-10 mg to start.

 

Aniracetam

Clinical

Aniracetam is a lipophilic derivative of Piracetam, exhibiting many of the same same effects with an estimated 3-6x increased potency. It increases cholinergic neurotransmission as is typical of the Racetam class of nootropics. It also positively modulates glutamatergic activity via AMPA receptors and is considered the model for Ampakine agents. Additional mechanisms of action involve Dopaminergic, Serotonergic and GABAergic pathways. Observed effects in research trials include the following:

◾Enhances cognitive function in impaired individuals.
◾Increases levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
◾Exhibits anxiolytic properties and an increase in social interaction.
◾Reduces signs of depression and impulsive behaviors.
◾Exerts a neuroprotective effect

Dosage

Doses as low as 400 mg have been reported to have some efficacy, and it is common to take the above 1,000-1,500 mg Aniracetam in two divided doses of 500-750 mg twice daily with meals.

 

Bacopa

* WebMD   Clinical

Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as water hyssop, is an herb often used in Ayurveda.

Supplementing Bacopa monnieri has been shown to improve Cognition, by means of reducing Anxiety. It is also reliable for improving Memory formation. Though effects of this nature are usually studied in the elderly, Bacopa monnieri appears to affect young people as well, making it a useful Nootropic.

Since Bacopa monnieri is also an Adaptogen, a relaxed person might experience a lack of motivation to work after supplementation. Theoretically, pairing Bacopa monnieri with a stimulant would ward off malaise, but this combination has not been tested.

Bacopa monnieri interacts with the dopamine and serotonergic systems, but its main mechanism concerns promoting neuron communication. It does this by enhancing the rate at which the nervous system can communicate by increasing the growth of nerve endings, also called dendrites. Bacopa monnieri is also an antioxidant.

Taking Bacopa monnieri on an empty stomach may cause nausea, cramping, bloating, or diarrhea.

Things to Note about Bacopa

In double-blind interventions, Bacopa tends to give upset stomachs much more than placebo. It would be advisable to take with food.

Bacopa takes time to work. Studies that are too short tend to note either lesser or no effects, and studies that take multiple measures note that improvements are much better at 8-12 weeks than they are at 4-6 weeks.

Anxiolytic effects might be acute though; its just the cognitive enhancement that seems to take time.

Dosage

The standard dose for Bacopa monnieri is 300mg, assuming that the total bacoside content (the active compound) is 55% of the extract, by weight.

Bacopa monnieri can also be supplemented in a leaf or powder form. To achieve the ideal 10-20% of bacoside content requires a dose of 750-1,500mg of the leaf or powder.

Historically, Bacopa monnieri was consumed with ghee, a clarified butter that originated in India. Since Bacopa monnieri is fat soluble and requires a lipoid transporter to be absorbed, it should be supplemented alongside a meal.

 

Which cognitive enhancers seem to work for healthy people?

Lifestyle Short-term Memory Attention Memory Mood Enhancer Anti-Fatigue Creativity Reasoning
Exercise   1 1 null 1      
Meditation 1 1 2 null null   1   1  
Sleep     1 2 3 1   1  
Supplements, Herbs & Drugs Short-term Memory Attention Memory Mood Enhancer Anti-Fatigue Creativity Reasoning
Ampalex (CX-516)     1 2        
Ashwagandha   1   1 2 3      
Aspirin 1            
B vitamin complex       1      
B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals   1     1    
Bacopa monniera 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 null 1 2 null null 1 2 3 1    
Beetroot   1          
Bromocriptine 1 2 3 4 null 1 2          
Bupropion   1          
CDP-Choline   1 2          
Choline Bitartrate   1          
Citalopram     1        
Cocoa flavanols 1 null null 1 null null   1 2 null 1 null null    
Creatine 1 2* 3* null null null 1 null null     1   1* 2
CX717         1 null    
D-Serine   1 1        
DHEA     1 null 1      
Donepezil 1 2 1          
Ginkgo Biloba extract 1 null* 1 2 null* 1 2 3 null* null        
Ginseng (American, Panax quinquefolius) 1 2 1   1      
Ginseng (Asian, Panax ginseng) 1 2 3 null 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 null 1 null* null null 1 2 3 null null null 1 2    
GTS-21 1 1 1        
Guanfacine 1 null 1 null          
Guaraná   1 null 1 1      
Guaraná with multi-vitamin and mineral supplement   1   1 1 2    
Huperzine A     1 null        
Hydergine   1          
idazoxan   1          
Iodine             1* 2* null null
Ispronicline (AZD-3480, TC-1734)   1 1        
Kava 1 1   1      
Levodopa     1 2 3 null      
Levetiracetam   1          
Levothyroxine     1*        
Losartan     1        
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)     1 1      
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) 1 null null 1 2 3 null 1 2   1 null    
Micro-nutrient supplement             1* 2*
Modafinil 1 2 3 null null 1 2 3 4 null null   1 1 2 3 null 1*
Nicotine (pure, not tobacco) 1 2 1 2 1 2        
Omega 3 1* null 1 2* null null null   1 null null      
Oxytocin     1 null        
Palm leaf extract 1 1          
Pergolide 1 2 null null null null          
Phosphatidylserine   1   1 2      
Piracetam     1 2 3*        
Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow extract (BT-11)     1        
PRL-8-53     1        
Propranolol           1 2  
Pycnogenol   1 1 1      
Pyritinol   1          
Rhodiola rosea       1 1 2 null    
Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage)   1 2 1 1 2 1    
Semax 1 1          
Soya     1        
Soya isoflavone 1            
Theanine   1 2*          
Theanine and caffeine 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 null   1 2 1    
Thiamine   1   1      
Tolcapone   1 1        
Tyrosine 1            
Vinpocetine 1 2            
Zembrin   1          
Zinc             1*
Blends Short-term Memory Attention Memory Mood Enhancer Anti-Fatigue Creativity Reasoning
Alpha Brain     1        
Ceretrophin             1
CRAM   1          
NT-020   1          
Devices & Programs Short-term Memory Attention Memory Mood Enhancer Anti-Fatigue Creativity Reasoning
N-back all all all all all all all
Neurofeedback all all all all all all all
tDCS all all all all all all all
TILS   1 1 1      
TMS all all all all all all all

List of studies

Numbers = studies in support
Numbers with asterisk = study in support was done on a possibly non-representative subpopulation
Null = studies against
Null with asterisk = study against was done on a possibly non-representative subpopulation

The categories are very broad, look to individual studies for specifics.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis:

Do cognitive enhancers work long-term?

There are essentially no long-term randomized controlled studies (greater than a year) on otherwise healthy adults. That type of research doesn’t seem to have a funding source.

Bacopa monniera has a fair bit of medium term research suggesting its effects increase over 12 weeks. ref

What can I use to quantify/track nootropic effects?

Free cognitive metrics:

See also:

Which cognitive enhancers are likely to show up on a drug test?

What supplements are possibly good for mitigating anxiety?

 

List of studies

Numbers = studies in support
Numbers with asterisk = study in support was done on a possibly non-representative subpopulation
Null = studies against
Null with asterisk = study against was done on a possibly non-representative subpopulation

The categories are very broad, look to individual studies for specifics.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis:

Do cognitive enhancers work long-term?

There are essentially no long-term randomized controlled studies (greater than a year) on otherwise healthy adults. That type of research doesn’t seem to have a funding source.

Bacopa monniera has a fair bit of medium term research suggesting its effects increase over 12 weeks. ref

What can I use to quantify/track nootropic effects?

Free cognitive metrics:

See also:

Which cognitive enhancers are likely to show up on a drug test?

What supplements are possibly good for mitigating anxiety?

See also:

COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS: A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIALS

Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Examine Topic: Anxiety

What supplements are possibly good for sleep?

See also:

http://www.gwern.net/Melatonin

What tools can I use to research nootropics further?

Google Scholar and PudMed are both useful for finding relevant research. /r/scholar, DeepDyve and sometimes Google Scholar can provide access to full articles.

Research Tips

Use Google Scholar search use search terms like:

  • (insert drug or supplement) cognitive normal
  • (insert drug or supplement) cognitive volunteers
  • (insert drug or supplement) cognitive placebo
  • (insert drug or supplement) review
  • (insert drug or supplement) adverse
  • (insert drug or supplement) tolerated
  • (insert system or mechanism ex: AMPA receptor modulator/modulation)
  • RVIP healthy control
  • cognitive healthy placebo
  • recall healthy control
  • working memory healthy

Other methods:

You can also search through the publications of individuals doing relevant research.

Example

You can also try to find the work of researchers and their associates with “author:name”.

Example

And people who have an interest in cognitive enhancement.

Example

One other powerful method for finding interesting research is finding one research paper you’re interested in and searching through the papers that cite it.

Example

See also:


Safety concerns, warnings, side-effects and contra-indications

This is not a complete list, when in doubt ask your doctor.

It’s recommended to keep “stacks” to a minimum. The more you take the greater the risk of unforeseen interactions.

See also:

Drugcite – drug side effects search engine


Bacopa monnieri

How long does it take bacopa monnieri to work?

Bacopa monnieri’s anxiolytic effects can usually be felt shortly after ingestion. However, it’s memory enhancing effects may take 8-12 weeks to build up. More analysis on Bacopa


Caffeine

Does caffeine ‘tolerance’ negate caffeine’s positive effects on cognitive performance?

The effects of caffeine on cognitive performance may diminish, but they may not disappear. ref ref This however is still not conclusively known due to the difficulty associated with performing large long-term controlled studies.

Can caffeine tolerance be reversed?

Yes. Abstaining from caffeine for 2-9 days should reverse tolerance. ref


Racetams

What is a racetam?

In our context racetam refers to piracetam and its nootropic derivatives, most commonly either piracetam, aniracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam or noopept. All known racetams are synthetic chemicals that share a pyrrolidone ring structure.

How do racetams work? What is their mechanism of action?

The mechanism racetams utilize is not fully understood and there may be differences between them, but there are a few likely theories. They may work by:

Increasing ATP synthesis
Increasing acetylcholine utilization
Increasing membrane fluidity
Increasing microcirculation
Modulating AMPA receptors 

See also:

Which racetam would you recommend most?

Piracetam.

It has the most relevant research in its favor in terms of its cognitive enhancing effects and its safety profile. No other racetam has been shown to be beneficial to healthy individuals on average. No other racetam has relevant data on its safety to compete with decades of postmarketing surveillance on top of the usual toxicity studies.

How long does it take for piracetam to work?

It takes about two weeks for piracetam’s effects to become statistically significant. ref This doesn’t preclude immediate positive effects for some people, but two weeks is a good minimum trial period.


Is it necessary to take choline with racetams?

It’s not strictly necessary to supplement choline when you’re taking a racetam. Anecdotal reports suggest choline mitigates racetam induced headaches. Choline may in fact work synergistically with racetams, but quality evidence supporting that position is notably missing, especially when it comes to healthy individuals. Discussion

Note: You can get a substantial amount of choline from dietary sources such as milk, cheese, eggs, soy lecithin, fish, beef (especially liver), almonds, cauliflower, pistachios, spinach, wheat germ and spirulina. More

See also:

Piracetam and Choline Interactions

How much choline should I supplement if I’m taking a racetam?

  • 0-3,500mg Choline Bitartrate per day

Recommended starting point: 650mg in the morning

  • 0-750mg Citicoline (CDP-Choline) per day

Recommended starting point: 250mg in the morning

  • 0-900mg L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC, choline alfoscerate) per day

Recommended starting point: 300mg in the morning

  • 0-7,500mg Lecithin per day

Recommended starting point: 2,500mg in the morning or at night

Additional notes:

  • You can also take your choline throughout the day if you prefer.

L-theanine

How does L-theanine work?

L-theanine increases a host of neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine and GABA levels and has affinities for AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors. It also antagonistic effects on group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

L-theanine’s relaxing effects likely come from increasing serotonin and gaba levels. L-theanine’s nootropic effects are likely due to its effects on serotonin and dopamine levels. Its neuroprotective effects likely come from its antagonistic effects on group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

See also: The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent.

Are all “L-theanine” preparations the same?

If it says 100% L-theanine and it’s from a reputable brand with an independent CoA it’s likely to be virtually identical to other brands.

Do you build tolerance to the effects of L-theanine?

There isn’t solid research on this question, but there are very few reports of tolerance issues. Tolerance isn’t likely to be an issue for most people taking a standard amount of L-theanine.

Will L-theanine break down in a hot or cold beverages?

L-theanine seems to be stable in both hot and cold beverages short-term. L-theanine is likely to be stable in most cold beverages long-term as well.

“No degradation of L-theanine was noted in beverages heated at 121C for 5 min. It has been shown to be stable in solution over a pH range of 3.0 to 6.6. Suntheanine TM showed good stability in both neutral (pH 6.5) and acidic (pH 3.0) beverages during 12 months’ storage at under 25C. The neutral beverage including 0.2% Suntheanine TM was autoclaved for 10 min at 90C and the acidic beverage at 121 C for 5 min, and theanine was decomposed in the dry state at 214±215C.”


L-theanine-Caffeine and Tea

How much L-theanine is in a cup of black tea?

About 20mg (24.2 ± 5.7mg) ref

How much caffeine is in a cup of black tea?

14-61mg ref

How much L-theanine is in a cup of green tea?

The exact L-theanine content of teas will depend on environmental conditions (climate, rainfall, sunlight). Standard green tea may have L-theanine content as low as 5mg per cup (7.9 ± 3.8mg). ref While shade grown green tea ( Gyokuro, Matcha) may have as much as 46mg per cup.

How much caffeine is in a cup of green tea?

14-61mg ref

Why pick green tea over black tea?

It’s possible to get more L-theanine per cup with shade grown green tea ( Gyokuro, Matcha). And catechins in green tea may be pro-cognitive. ref ref

Why pick pure l-theanine and caffeine over green or black tea?

Most studies done on the l-theanine-caffeine combination have a l-theanine to caffeine ratio that isn’t consistent with ratios you would expect from most teas. The studies used about twice as much l-theanine as caffeine by weight. The ratio found in most teas is reversed, with the possible exception of high quality green tea. Tea also increases fluoride intake which may lead to skeletal or other health problems when consumed in excess.


Custom Blends

What is the consensus on Alpha Brain?

Alpha Brain Review

Alpha brain has many solid ingredients (Bacopa, L-theanine, Phosphatidylserine, Alpha-GPC, Vinpocetine). There are some apparent issues with the blend, though. For instance, the amount of bacopa in seems to be under what is established to be its active dose, which is unfortunate because it also happens to be one of the most promising nootropics.

Onnit recently published a placebo controlled studied they funded. Though it’s hard to compare between studies, especially when they use different cognitive metrics, one thing that can be said is the results aren’t very impressive. It’s not clearly better than say a full dose of Bacopa monnieri.

Threads on Alpha Brain

Other blended products / Optimind/ Alleradd / Nirvana (American Muscle) / Evo / Nitrovit / NeuroFuse / Addium / Doxiderol / Neurojuvenate / etc.

In the past two years, many new companies have created blended products similar to Alpha Brain. The common theme is being very expensive relative to ordering capsules of the individual components from a reliable source. Often the ingredients are not fully disclosed making it difficult to determine if the product is essentially snake-oil for being too low a dose to be effective. For feedback on such products, please do a search first and then use /r/stackadvice for opinions on the formulation vs price.


Modafinil/Armodafinil

Do I have to take modafinil/armodafinil everyday for it to work?

No. Modafinil’s effects are acute, they will kick in shortly after you take it. You can take it only on occasion or everyday. We don’t recommend taking it everyday if you’re not treating a disease/symptom.

23andMe/Promeathease says I’m a non responder to modafinil according to rs4680, is there any chance it will work for me?

Several people have reported the expected extended durations of wakefulness irrespective of the genetic study suggesting little or no response to modafinil. ref


Buying

Where is a good place to buy?

Reliable Supplier List


Do Any Vendors Have Special Offers For Redditors?

This section is a work in progress. If you are a vendor and would like to or are offering a discount code let us know and we’ll add your discount code or other special offer.

Liftmode is offering 10% off to redditors with the coupon code REDDIT10.

New Star Nootropics has a permanent 10% discount for redditors with the coupon code REDDIT.

PowderCity has a reddit discount coupon. Enter coupon code FEDORA for 10% off.

New Suppliers List

The following suppliers aren’t thoroughly vetted, but we don’t have any reason to suspect they aren’t reliable:

Blacklisted Suppliers

Bioscience Nutra / Cerebral Health

Bioscience Nutra / Cerebral Health has severe quality control issues. This company also goes by the name Cerebral Health.

Nootrabiolabs / Johnson Laboratories / Smart On Nootropics

Nootrabiolabs has sent out inauthentic products, and there have been multiple reports of people receiving baking powder instead of the nootropic they purchased. We don’t have any reason to think they’re running an honest safety conscious business.

Reliable Nootropics suppliers for the UK?

All the suppliers on the reliable supplier list ship internationally. Mind Nutrition seems to be a reliable UK based company. Many people also recommend intellimeds as a reliable UK based company, though we aren’t 100% satisfied with their honesty.

You shouldn’t rely on second hand sources for legal advice. Check your government’s website regarding prohibited substances for import.

Modafinil

Buying modafinil online without a prescription

It’s technically illegal to buy without a prescription in most countries. Legal risks beyond the possibility of seizure by customs appears to be low. ref

List of reliable modafinil suppliers

Full list of modafinil suppliers and prices

Modafinil in Canada

Canadian customs seems to be stricter than the US. Many reliable suppliers don’t offer direct shipping because of the increased probability of seizure. Using a reshipping service/mail forwarding company based in the US is another option.

I have to go pick up my modafinil at the post office, should I?

Signing off for modafinil packages appears to be a low risk endeavor. Discussion

Can you buy Adderall / Methylphenidate / Vyvanse / etc online without a prescription?

Most reliable vendors won’t carry these substances. There is a risk of buying counterfeit substitutes with unknown safety profiles.

Is AwakeBrain.com a reliable supplier?

AwakeBrain.com appears to be reliable. They seem to ship the branded pharmaceutical version of many cognitive enhancers as shown on the website.

Is Bioscience Nutraceuticals / Cerebral Health a reliable supplier?

** Bioscience Nutraceuticals Review / Cerebral Health Review**

Bioscience Nutraceuticals / Cerebral Health is highly unreliable and potentially dangerous. Bioscience Nutraceuticals / Cerebral Health has repeatedly sold inauthentic products, some of which have sent redditors to the hospital and caused long-term neurological damage. Do NOT risk your health.

Cerebral Health Pyritinol Test Results (WARNING)

Report 1

Report 2

Bioscience Nutraceuticals / Cerebral Health may also be selling under the name Johnson Laboratories on ebay. ref

From public records it appears Nootrabiolabs and Cerebral Health were connected at one point, it’s unclear whether they’re still connected. ref Their story appears to be that they were in a relationship but went there separate ways 3 years ago.

Testing results from inauthentic pyritinol that sent one redditor to the hospital and potentially caused life-threatening seizures

Testing results from suspected inauthentic choline bitartrate

They have been cited by the FDA for record keeping and procedural issues. ref

List of reliable suppliers

Is Bulk Nutrients (Australia) a reliable supplier?

They ship what they sell, but worryingly they have admitted to having never tested any of their products in over 1 year of doing business. ref

List of reliable suppliers

Is Cognitive Nutrition a reliable supplier?

Cognitive Nutrition has been removed from the reliable supplier list for dishonest marketing on this forum. (Fake testimonials, advertising without stating their affiliation). There also have been reports of threatening customers who try to inquire about the quality of their products.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Enhance Nootropics a reliable supplier?

They have posted fake reviews on reddit and lied about their background to moderators. Currently they do not have any independent testing.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Intellimeds a reliable supplier?

Intellimeds Review

They have been involved in some dishonest marketing practices, so it’s not entirely clear.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Liftmode a reliable supplier?

Liftmode Review

Liftmode definitely has a good reputation for fulfilling orders in a timely manner. There is however some evidence that their quality control may be less than optimal. Their phenylpiracetam has been noted to change colors from batch to batch, which could be a cause for concern. Liftmode claims to test their products in the US, but so far there’s no documentation posted to substantiate the claim.

List of reliable suppliers

Is New Star Nootropics a reliable supplier?

New Star Nootropics Review

New Star Nootropics seems to be a reliable supplier with a high degree of customer satisfaction. They were an early adopter of 3rd party testing. [Threads on New Star Nootropics]

As of 9th January 2013, they are promoting using reddit’s official advertising service with the discount code: REDDIT for 10% off.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Elevated Labs a reliable supplier?

Elevated Labs Review

The consensus is generally not. Many supply chain issues, ignored emails from customers and possible quality control issues. See posts about elevated labs to make up your own mind.

As of January 13th 2013, they still appear to be having quality control issues

As of February 18th 2013, Elevated is still considered unreliable, one case of an order being delayed 4-5 months. ref

As of May 2015, Elevated Labs appears to have closed down, though their twitter page is still up.

List of reliable suppliers

Is PowderCity, formerly Health Supplement Wholesalers (HSW) / Your Brain and Body Supplements / Build Own Blend Supplements (BYOB) / Supplement Nexus / NootropicNexus / Supplements4less a reliable supplier?

PowderCity (formerly Health Supplement Wholesalers) Review

PowderCity (formerly Health Supplement Wholesalers) seems to be a reliable supplier. They have many happy customers and have periodically tested their products to maintain good quality control. In the past they did use some dishonest marketing practices, this doesn’t appear to be a big issue anymore.

List of reliable suppliers

Is BlueBrainBoost a reliable supplier?

BlueBrainBoost seems to be a reliable supplier. They seem to list certificates of analysis (CoA) from China, which are often entirely false. But they have a request form for independent CoAs, which is a good sign and they say they also use melting point, solution pH, loss on drying and organoleptic tests to ensure quality control.

BlueBrainBoosts’s owner was involved in astroturfing on this forum early on in their history.

Is Peak Nootropics a good place to buy from?

Peak Nootropics Review

Peak Nootropics does deliver products. PeakNootropics has done 3rd party tests on most of their products in the past. New shipments are inspected by sight and smell and a lot of emphasis is put on their relationship with their supplier. Though PeakNootropics has shown interest in using more rigorous tests on their batches.

PeakNootropics has also been known to spam forums with shill accounts. This spam has tapered off and is no longer a significant issue.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Smart Drugs for Thought a reliable supplier?

Smart Drugs for Thought a.k.a. “Smart Nutrition for Life” LLC has a long history of deceptive advertising. They periodically create sock-puppet accounts to praise their own business, here and elsewhere. Users have complained that their capsules filling isn’t accurate, with some capsules being entirely empty.

List of reliable suppliers

Is TeamLTR / TrueLIFE Research a reliable supplier?

No. They make unverifiable claims about being a group of devoted scientists. They make unverifiable claims about doing animal testing. They do not do 3rd party purity testing. They do not provide information on what is in some of their products. They appear to have engaged in astroturfing on this subreddit. Taken together there’s good cause for concern with “TrueLife Research”, it’s recommended to use some sort of chemical verification if you decide to buy something from them.

Note: some test results seem to show many of LTRs products are legitimate, but others seem to be just filler material, despite high expense and wild claims regarding the treatment of serious disorders.

List of reliable suppliers

Is tht.co (Transhuman Technologies) a reliable supplier?

They used to reliably ship their products. For a while in 2015 they closed up shop, but they reopened in July of 2015. As of the reopening the verdict is still out about product quality and reliability. Discussion

Additionally there are some concerns about the safety of some items they carry. For example, at least one product (NPS) has research indicating it activates pathways important in cancer development, but tht makes no mention of this. Discussion

Note: the clone site transhumantechnologies.com may not be associated with tht.co, check with tht.co before using it.

List of reliable suppliers

Is Smart Powders a reliable supplier?

SmartPowders is a company with a well-established name. They have done third party tests on some products in the past, but there are many products without CoAs posted. Their continued quality control has been brought into question by one redditor. In 2010 Smart Powders did run into problems with the FDA because they marketed piracetam as a dietary supplement, which is why they no longer carry piracetam.

There have been some recent reports of missing orders and non-responsive customer service, bringing their reliability into question.

Reliable Suppliers

Is Absorb Health (Absorb Your Health) a good place to buy from?

Absorb Health is likely to be reliable. They seem to have started posting Certificates of Analysis for many of their products. However people are typically referred to Absorb Health via questionable sales websites that may give people false expectations.

Discoount code [-5%]: reddit5

Reliable Suppliers

Is Nootrico a reliable supplier?

There are some good signs to suggest Nootrico is a good vendor. They seem to have done proactive testing on some of their products. As with Absorb Health, people are typically referred to Nootrico via questionable sales websites that may give people false expectations.

Reliable Suppliers


Independent Testing Project

/r/nootropics began an independent testing project in 2013 to help bring accurate purity and authenticity information to the nootropics community. This project is funded through sponsorship from select trustworthy businesses which were highlighted in the FAQ prior to sponsoring and individual donors from the community.

Independent Testing Results

Bioscience Nutraceuticals / Cerebral Health

Cognitive Nutrition

Fapiram

PowderCity (Previously known as Health Supplement Wholesalers)

Swanson

Himalaya

Nootrabiolabs


Dosages & Methods

How do I measure bulk powder into dosages?

The simplest method is buying a scale. Typically they can be had for as low as $15 for a milligram scale (as small as 1mg can be measured) including 1-2 reference weights for calibration. Be sure to measure doses on a level surface, low humidity and without any air turbulence (close any open windows and doors).

Alternatively, one can dissolve a known mass of a substance into a known volume of solvent and then measure smaller volumes of the mix using volumetric measures to approximate a dose given the previous known ratio.

Consider getting a capping device such as the cap-m-quik if you want to avoid measuring each time you want to make a dose.

Vendors may give you a small scoop, but this is ONLY for transferring powders from the bag to the scale.

How much 5-HTP should I take?

50mg-300mg taken in the morning or at night and during the day as needed, if at all. 5-HTP is not recognised as a nootropic and may have many drug-drug interactions.

Examine’s recommendation

  • Oral exogenous 5-HTP disrupts dopaminergic function in the human forebrain. And may impair cognitive performance. ref
  • Be conservative with your dosage if you’re also taking an SSRI or MAOI.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much acetyl-l-carnitine should I take?

250mg-3,000mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses

Recommended starting point: 500mg twice a day

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much adrafinil should I take?

300mg-900mg once in the morning

Recommended starting point: 300mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much aniracetam should I take?

750mg-4,500mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses

For best results take aniracetam shortly after eating.

Recommended starting point: 750mg two times per day*

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much ashwagandha should I take?

600mg-1200mg ashwagandha root extract standardized to contain ~5% withanolides per day divided equally throughout the day into 2 doses

Recommended starting point: 300mg two times per day

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Bacopa Monnieri should I take?

300mg-1,000mg of bacopa extract (with 50% bacosides A & B) per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses

Recommended starting point: 300mg (50% bacosides A & B) bacopa extract once in the morning or 750mg (20% bacosides A & B)

Examine’s recommendation

  • Bacopa monniera may cause gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side-effects and nausea. ref
  • Bacopa monniera is a hyperaccumulator of heavy metals, finding a reputable source is key.
  • Bacopa monniera may reduce male fertility through a testosterone independent mechanism. Men should not use bacopa monnieri while trying to conceive. ref

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much caffeine should I take?

50mg-400mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses.

Recommended starting point: 50mg twice per day (for best results each dose with 100-200mg theanine)

Examine’s recommendation

  • Caffeine has a relatively low lethal dose (it may be around 3 grams for some people). Don’t be reckless with caffeine pills or powder. ref ref
  • Caffeine can also cause anxiety, agitation and tachycardia (rapid heart rate).

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much creatine should I take?

1500mg-10,000mg per day

Recommended starting point: ~5,000mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

  • It may take 2-6 weeks for creatine to work if you take 5 grams per day. You may be able to shorten this loading phase by taking 20 grams per day for the first week.
  • Consult your doctor before using creatine if you have kidney problems.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much dark chocolate (cocoa flavanols) should I take?

35-200 grams of dark chocolate per day (~350mg-2,000mg of cocoa flavanols) divided equally into 1-5 “doses”.

Recommended starting point: 50 grams dark chocolate (1.76 ounces, 500mg cocoa flavanols) once or twice per day

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much DHEA should I take?

5mg-25mg per day

Recommended starting point: 12.5mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

DHEA should not be taken throughout the day, but rather only in the morning or at night.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Ginkgo Biloba should I take?

120mg-240mg once per day

Recommended starting point: 120mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) should I take?

200mg-2,000mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses (assuming average 3-5% ginsenoside concentration)

Recommended starting point: 500mg twice a day

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) should I take?

100mg-2,000mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses (assuming average 3-5% ginsenoside concentration)

Recommended starting point: ~500mg twice a day

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Green Tea Extract should I take?

400mg-1600mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses

Recommended starting point: 400mg twice a day

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much guaraná extract should I take?

75mg-300mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-4 doses

Recommended starting point: 75mg three times per day*

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much huperzine A should I take?

50mcg-400mcg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-3 doses

Recommended starting point: 100mcg twice a day*

  • It may be prudent to cycle huperzine A (i.e every couple of days take a day or two off) to avoid the risk of accumulation and down-regulation.

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Kava extract should I take?

300mg-600mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses.

Note: Extracts can vary wildly in their potency, follow the directions on your product’s label.

Recommended starting point: 300mg once in the morning with a meal

Examine’s recommendation

  • Kava may cause acute liver damage. ref Improper preparation may however be to blame for the acute toxicity. ref Risk factors for hepatotoxicity include: “overdose, prolonged treatment, and comedication with synthetic drugs and dietary supplements”. ref Discussion

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Magnesium Citrate should I take?

200mg-600mg taken in the morning or at night

Recommended starting point: 200mg before going to sleep

  • It is suggested to divide your dosages if taking more, as it may cause diarrhea

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Melatonin should I take?

0.3mg-5mg before going to sleep

Recommended starting point: 0.5mg before going to sleep

  • It is recommended to start low and increase the dosage if it is not having the desired effect. Too much may cause morning grogginess.

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) should I take?

1,000mg-2,000mg dried Melissa officinalis leaf in the morning

Recommended starting point: 1,600mg in the morning

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much methylphenidate should I take?

10mg-40mg in the morning or at night if you plan on staying awake.

Recommended starting point: 20mg in the morning

Taking methylphenidate everyday may not be a great idea, tolerance could become an issue.

How much modafinil should I take?

100-400mg in the morning.

Recommended starting point: 100mg in the morning

Taking modafinil on an empty stomach may enhance its effects.

Examine’s recommendation

How much noopept should I take?

10mg-30mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-3 doses

Noopept can be taken on an empty stomach or with food.

Taking noopept sublingually may enhance effects (this method has not been rigorously studied), place the dry powder under your tongue for up to 20 minutes.

Recommended starting point: 10mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

  • Many people report Noopept sometimes causes short-term memory impairment.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much omega 3 DHA/EPA should I take?

200mg-4,000mg per day

Recommended starting point: 1,200mg

Recommended starting point for anxiety: 2,500mg

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much oxiracetam should I take?

800mg-2,400mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-3 doses

Oxiracetam can be taken on an empty stomach or with food.

Recommended starting point: 800mg two times per day*

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much phenibut should I take?

250mg-1000mg taken once per week

Warning: Phenibut is not a nootropic and doesn’t have a good safety profile. Use of phenibut is not recommended. It may help some people temporarily, but those individuals should probably seek a more sustainable alternative with a better safety profile. Phenibut can cause severe and potentially dangerous withdrawal when used regularly. Tolerance to phenibut can build quickly. Withdrawal symptoms include extreme anxiety, tachycardia and severe insomnia. Sudden withdrawal may also cause delirium seizures and hyperthermia. If you find you’ve become dependent to phenibut dosage tapering is required, professional assistance is recommended. Sudden withdrawal from a dependent state is potentially deadly.

See also: Anecdotal warning to all potential phenibut abusers.

How much phosphatidylserine should I take?

100mg-600mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses

Recommended starting point: 200mg-400mg in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much phenylpiracetam should I take?

100mg-200mg 1-3 doses

Recommended starting point: 100mg two times per day*

  • This recommendation may need to be adjusted downwards if you plan to take many different cognitive enhancers at once.

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much piracetam should I take?

1,600mg-6,400mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-3 doses

Piracetam can be taken on an empty stomach or with food.

Recommended starting point: 1,600mg three times per day*

Examine’s recommendation

  • Although rare, some people may experience withdrawal symptoms with sudden Piracetam discontinuation. To avoid withdrawal gradually reduce the amount of piracetam by 1 gram every 2-4 days.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much pramiracetam should I take?

150mg-1,500mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-3 doses

For the best results take shortly after eating.

Recommended starting point: 200mg two times per day*

Examine’s recommendation

  • Taking pramiracetam sublingually may cause a burning sensation and irritation.

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) should I take?

100mg-1,000mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses (assuming standardized extract with ~3% Rosavins)

Recommended starting point: 350mg in the morning

  • Note Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) has known MAO inhibiting properties

Examine’s recommendation

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How much Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) should I take?

50µL-100µL of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses.

Or 300mg-600mg of dried Salvia lavandulaefolia leaf per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses.

Recommended starting point: 300mg dried sage leaf once a day.

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How much Soya isoflavone should I take?

60mg-180mg once a day

Recommended starting point: 60mg in the morning

  • note soya isoflavone may modestly increase prolactin and estrogen and decrease testosterone

Examine’s recommendation

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How much Sulbutiamine should I take?

200mg-400mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-2 doses

Recommended starting point: 200mg once in the morning

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How much l-theanine should I take?

100mg-2,000mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-5 doses

Recommended starting point: 100mg or 200mg three times per day (for best results take 25-200mg caffeine with daytime doses)

It doesn’t matter if you take theanine with food or on an empty stomach. You can even take it sublingually.

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How much tianeptine sodium should I take?

12.5mg taken one to three times per day.

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How much tianeptine sulfate should I take?

No research has been conducted to determine a safe dose of tianeptine sulfate powder. Only non peer reviewed research that exists is on tianeptine sulfate with a special slow release polymer. Some suggest 25mg taken one to two times per day.

How much tryptophan should I take?

500mg-3,000mg taken in the morning or at night and during the day as needed.

Recommended starting point: 500mg at night

  • Be conservative with your dosage if you’re also taking an SSRI or MAOI.

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How much tyrosine should I take?

2,000mg-12,000mg once per day

Recommended starting point: 2,000mg taken on an empty stomach

Examine’s recommendation

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How much vinpocetine should I take?

10mg-100mg per day divided equally throughout the day into 1-5 doses

Recommended starting point: 10mg three times per day*

  • This recommendation may need to be adjusted downwards if you plan to take many different cognitive enhancers at once.

Examine’s recommendation

  • Consult a doctor before using vinpocetine if you take blood thinning medications. Do not use if you have low blood pressure. ref

List of Reliable Suppliers

How much vitamin D should I take?

2000IU-6000IU per day

Recommended starting point: 4000IU in the morning

Examine’s recommendation

List of Reliable Suppliers