GRE Verbal

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Magoosh, Complete Guide to GRE Vocabulary (very good)
* Magoosh also has paid services, which are quite good.




This is information and study material for the GRE. Most of this information has been compiled from multiple Internet sources…to be used for my own preparation for the GRE.

The GRE General Test is currently a computer-based test offered at centers in the US and in most other countries. In China and in some other parts of the Far East a paper-version of the GRE is administered. In both the computer and paper-based tests the questions types are the same.

The GRE General Test has three main divisions: Analytical Writing; Verbal Reasoning; Quantitative Reasoning. A typical computer-based test starts with the Analytical Writing section (1 hour). There are 2 sections of Verbal Reasoning each with approximately 20 questions to be completed in 30 minutes. There are 2 sections of Quantitative Reasoning each with approximately 20 questions to be completed in 35 minutes. There is usually also an unidentified unscored section that can appear at any position in the test.

The computer-based GRE takes 3 hours 45 minutes.

Analytical Writing

The analytical writing section has two essay writing tasks: the Issue and the Argument. The Issue task presents two topics of which the candidate must select one on which to write an essay presenting the writer’s position on the topic. The candidate is required to support his or her point of view with examples and reasoning. The time allotted for this task is 30 minutes.

The Argument task presents a statement of a position. The candidate is required to analyze the logic of the given position and suggest how and where the reasoning may be faulty or require improvement. The student is given 30 minutes for this essay.

The scoring for the Analytical Writing section is on a scale of 0-6. Each essay is scored by a human reader and then by a computer program called the e-rater. If the human and e-rater scores differ, the score is sent to a second reader. The final score is the average of the two human scores (to the nearest half mark). If the there is no disparity between the first human score and that of the e-rater, that score is taken.

Verbal Reasoning

The verbal reasoning section contains three types of question: sentence equivalence; text completion; reading comprehension.

The verbal reasoning section of the GRE is often said to be a test of vocabulary. However, the comprehension questions require good reading and reasoning skills. You can check out the level of vocabulary on our wordlists which contain words that have been used in actual GRE tests.

Quantitative Reasoning

The quantitative reasoning section has two types of multiple choice questions: quantitative comparisons and problem solving. The test also contains Numeric Entry questions where students have to provide their own answers.

The level of math knowledge should be within the grasp of a 10th Grade student. Some of the questions involve data interpretation. An onscreen calculator is provided to students taking the computer based test. Students taking the paper based test are provided with a calculator at the test center.




Sentence Equivalence

1. The prize competition was ____ as a showcase for new technology, but instead the competition was marred by disqualifications and disputes.

A. disappointing
B. conceived
C. touted
D. heralded
E. promising
F. required

2. The new institute provides intensive postgraduate teaching to a wide range of students, in the hope that these students will use their knowledge to boost the country’s ____ economy.

A. languishing
B. emerging
C. booming
D. domestic
E. bankrupt
F. flagging

3. Like other metaphors, the “book of Nature” has two facets: it is ____ but if taken literally, it may mislead.

A. heuristic
B. perceptive
C. poetic
D. insightful
E. prosaic
F. iconoclastic

4. The increasing interactivity emerging in the latest computer systems means that the traditional view of the computer as a ____ of information now unduly limiting.

A. gleaner
B. transformer
C. processor
D. producer
E. repository
F. cache

5. Turing’s life exerts a powerful and ____ effect on writers – the combination of the highly intellectual and the personally dramatic is hard to resist.

A. abiding
B. pervasive
C. perennial
D. irresistible
E. unmitigated
F. multifaceted

6. As a result of his regimented upbringing, that left him unable to see the nuances of complex situations, he was often accused of being ____ .

A. indecisive
B. tyrannical
C. obtuse
D. boorish
E. xenophobic
F. imperceptive

7. It is paradoxical that String Theory inspires such widespread respect when it is so ____ that few could ever hope to master its claims.

A. intractable
B. confusing
C. elevated
D. arcane
E. obscure
F. rigorous

8. Those with a reputation for ____ behavior seldom inspire respect: unwavering adherence to a viewpoint is more admired than flexibility.

A. capricious
B. bombastic
C. dogmatic
D. fickle
E. honorable
F. stalwart

9. The courtiers of the time had to be ____ in order to survive in an atmosphere where the least sign of rebellion could lead to banishment or worse.

A. taciturn
B. fawning
C. docile
D. self-serving
E. upright
F. servile

10. Forgiveness was fine in theory, but she had trouble in accepting a religion that would allow ____ evil-doers access to heaven.

A. repentant
B. contrite
C. blatant
D. venial
E. pardoned
F. recalcitrant




1. CD
2. AF
3. BD
4. EF
5. AC
6. CF
7. DE
8. AD
9. BF
10. AB

1. The Countess dressed with a (an) ____ elegance which seemed to proclaim to the world just how distinguished she was.

A. studied
B. pronounced
C. ingenuous
D. understated
E. mannered
F. rococo

2. It is a waste of time to ____ someone so dimwitted; he is too dull to recognize your barbs.

A. disparage
B. ridicule
C. lampoon
D. laud
E. enlighten
F. train

3. The teacher was so abstracted that she gave a ____ evaluation of what was really an interesting solution to the problem she had set.

A. philosophical
B. cursory
C. detailed
D. considered
E. perfunctory
F. tangential

4. Punishment for transgressions of the law ceases to have a deterrent effect if the punishment is frequently ____ .

A. arbitrary
B. changed
C. waived
D. lenient
E. commuted
F. applied

5. Not only love affects the eye of the beholder; other emotions also ____ the interpretation of the events that we witness.

A. cloud
B. trigger
C. devalue
D. color
E. objectify
F. impact

6. The human mind can often reject the most ____ data in favor of something that, though valueless, at least sounds familiar.

A. anomalous
B. inconsequential
C. peripheral
D. pertinent
E. germane
F. visible

7. ____ behavior never has the effect its practitioners hope for; the attempt to hide only draws attention to what is hidden.

A. Misogynistic
B. Puritanical
C. Covert
D. Miserly
E. Prudish
F. Camouflaging

8. He completed the work with unusual ____ ; his need to get out of the office overcame his habitual torpor.

A. dispatch
B. grace
C. effectiveness
D. slovenliness
E. carelessness
F. celerity

9. When Smithers took over as chairperson, her colleagues were looking forward to a less confrontational time on the board of governors, since they reasoned that no one else was likely to be as ____ as her predecessor.

A. mordant
B. aggressive
C. flexible
D. bellicose
E. complaisant
F. jaundiced

10. When faced with an urgent problem for which there is no immediately obvious solution, we tend to welcome any suggestion, however ____ , that might throw light on the dilemma.

A. unusual
B. hackneyed
C. tentative
D. outrageous
E. illuminating
F. flimsy



1. AE
2. BC
3. BE
4. CE
5. DF
6. DE
7. BE
8. AF
9. BD
10. CF

1. Mannering’s personal diary, a record of ____ preoccupations and domestic details, belies the depth of thought for which he was renowned in the academic world.

A. philosophical
B. mundane
C. petty
D. weighty
E. erudite
F. untoward

2. Animal welfare charities have found that extensive advertising, especially over the Christmas period, can actually drive down the volume of donations as people who view images of maltreated pets more than a few times rapidly become ____ .

A. inured
B. miserly
C. disgusted
D. hardened
E. bored
F. overwrought

3. The study’s ____ conclusion is that during the first half of the 20th Century improved standards of personal hygiene reduced the risk of an individual’s contracting poliomyelitis, yet tended to make the disease more lethal to communities.

A. exciting
B. paradoxical
C. unwarranted
D. long-awaited
E. anomalous
F. interim

4. The devotion to the syllabus and testing regime has become so extreme that most school students close their minds to anything ____ to the needs of the examination.

A. related
B. catering
C. extraneous
D. similar
E. helpful
F. peripheral

5. The ____ tone of the biography is entirely unexpected since both the biographer in her previous works and her subject in all that he has written have valued levity over solemnity.

A. lugubrious
B. jaunty
C. jocose
D. frivolous
E. ironic
F. melancholy

6. After hours of acrimonious arguments the negotiations reached a(n) _____ ; neither side was willing to compromise.

A. solution
B. impasse
C. conclusion
D. end
E. deadlock
F. resolution

7. This new staging of King Lear is not a production in which every aspect falls neatly into place throughout; however, the drama does ____ at certain points to give the audience memorable and thought-provoking moments.

A. coalesce
B. crystallize
C. triumph
D. flower
E. dissolve
F. transcend

8. The teacher’s mercurial mood changes and ____ approach to grading made the students uneasy; they never knew what would please him or what would earn good marks.

A. tardy
B. authoritarian
C. strict
D. ambivalent
E. whimsical
F. hidebound

9. The book is an attempt on the part of the eminent scholar to reconcile the ____ experience and theoretical underpinnings of certain everyday phenomena.

A. philosophical
B. empirical
C. arcane
D. practical
E. superficial
F. obtuse

10. The last candidate interviewed conducted herself with commendable ____ even when badgered with questions that had drawn unseemly outbursts from all the other interviewees.

A. pertinacity
B. adroitness
C. alacrity
D. decorum
E. propriety
F. presence of mind



1. BC
2. AD
3. BE
4. CF
5. AF
6. BE
7. AB
8. DE
9. BD
10. DE


1. ____ adherence to outdated political ideas and defunct sects characterized the last years of a man who had, surprisingly, been one of the most flexible thinkers of the 1920s.

A. Intransigent
B. Vacillating
C. Sectarian
D. Confused
E. Frantic
F. Dogged

2. The ____ effects of constant noise drove Natasha to seek refuge in a more salubrious spot until she recovered her mental equilibrium.

A. stimulating
B. debilitating
C. deafening
D. enervating
E. soporific
F. precipitating

3. Grandfather liked us children to learn self-discipline, and, unlike many others of his generation, seldom ____ us even for those actions that we felt deserved censure.

A. rewarded
B. consoled
C. upbraided
D. applauded
E. cherished
F. chided

4. To the layman, a philosopher who attempts to elucidate a complex moral dilemma by reducing it to a simple yet apparently ridiculous test case seems rather to ____ the issue.

A. ridicule
B. obfuscate
C. over-simplify
D. denigrate
E. becloud
F. attenuate

5. Fraser taught by example: he ____ long-windedness in his own lectures and berated his students for any tendency toward circumlocution.

A. eschewed
B. epitomized
C. accentuated
D. embraced
E. welcomed
F. shunned

6. If he had not had the ____ to follow his own iconoclastic theories in the face of the apparently unassailable conclusion of the accepted experts in the field, progress would have been inestimably slower in this area of knowledge.

A. incentive
B. audacity
C. temerity
D. incapacity
E. unwillingness
F. wisdom

7. With an abiding interest in Medieval poetry, Boris found it difficult to relate to his peers in school whose ____ ran to nothing even remotely literary.

A. predilections
B. successes
C. inclinations
D. backgrounds
E. achievements
F. amities

8. The novel is admittedly not the finest example of its genre, but I object to the ____ preface written by a supposed expert on detective fiction from whom we might have expected at least one or two perceptive comments.

A. egregious
B. inane
C. pretentious
D. subliminal
E. vacuous
F. unexamined

9. It is not only the poor and uneducated that fall prey to ____ ; desperate or unhappy individuals from any walk of life or social background can be duped.

A. mavericks
B. malcontents
C. quacks
D. charlatans
E. agitators
F. hypochondriacs

10. The director, accustomed to unquestioning loyalty, was chagrined when she discovered that her directions had been ____ by the chief executive.

A. underscored
B. misinterpreted
C. undermined
D. misplaced
E. substantiated
F. subverted



1. AF
2. BD
3. CF
4. BE
5. AF
6. BC
7. AC
8. BE
9. CD
10. CF


1. Even though Byron is frequently glib, it is still hard to dismiss him as a ____ thinker.

A. superficial
B. profound
C. lightweight
D. lucid
E. verbose
F. uncompromising

2. Far from being an innocent prank, their action is a ____ attempt to spoil my reputation.

A. malicious
B. salubrious
C. naive
D. saturnine
E. innocuous
F. callous

3. Although his findings were initially greeted with ____ , the unlikely hero was finally vindicated when the French Academy acknowledged his work.

A. derision
B. accolades
C. commendations
D. sympathy
E. jubilation
F. incredulity

4. Their latest theory aims to integrate the seemingly ____ elements of twenty years of research to form a coherent whole.

A. relevant
B. sporadic
C. incessant
D. disparate
E. discrete
F. extensive

5. Svensson’s ____ in his work earned him few friends: his colleagues probably thought that he would be unwilling to overlook their foibles.

A. xenophobia
B. mendacity
C. meticulousness
D. intuition
E. punctiliousness
F. prevarication

6. Icons would be well-advised to write their own memoirs; there are too many ____ writers out there who forego accuracy to pander to the preconceptions of the market.

A. creative
B. lackluster
C. hackneyed
D. sycophantic
E. fawning
F. best-selling

7. Both commentators noted the way that Dylan can submerge himself in tradition while somehow managing to create works of startling ____.

A. gestation
B. singularity
C. provenance
D. conservatism
E. nonchalance
F. originality

8. When aid is given to an autocracy, the donors are prone to rationalize their decision to support non-democratic governments, and thus lay themselves open to the charge of ____.

A. negligence
B. hypocrisy
C. equivocation
D. slander
E. autonomy
F. nepotism

9. The insertion of a fiction into a news bulletin cannot be condoned, but inserting propaganda for a good cause seems less ____.

A. untoward
B. democratic
C. reprehensible
D. credible
E. insupportable
F. utilitarian

10. In showing the shocking images of depravity and degradation, the curators of the art museum said that the importance of historical accuracy outweighed the danger of encouraging ____.

A. prurience
B. avarice
C. vandalism
D. voyeurism
E. outrage
F. torture



1. AC
2. AF
3. AF
4. DE
5. CE
6. DE
7. BF
8. BC
9. CE
10. AD


Text Completion
Information   Sentence Equivalence   Text Completion   Reading Comprehension

1. With his sub-four minute mile Bannister broke a psychological barrier, and inspired thousands of others to attempt to overcome seemingly ____ hurdles.

A. insurmountable
B. inane
C. trivial
D. traumatic
E. ineffable

2. Ricks has written extensively not only on the poetry of such (i)____ figures in English poetry as Milton and Housman, but also on the less obviously (ii)____ lyrics of Bob Dylan.

A. obscurantist
B. arcane
C. established Blank (ii)
D. canonical
E. popular
F. judicious

3. People who seek advice from (i)____ often find that what they are told can seem true, because these seekers of information attribute significance to some predictions and ignore others. The mind seeks to make sense of predictions that, in themselves, have no (ii)____ value, and thus it becomes difficult to prove that the forecasts are (iii)____ .

A. experts
B. philosophers
C. clairvoyants Blank (ii)
D. special
E. general
F. legal Blank (iii)
G. genuine
H. specious
I. accurate

4. Stress-induced amnesia is a rare and (i)____ phenomenon; it strikes the patient apparently without warning and the memory loss can be as (i)____ as that induced by (iii)____ trauma.

A. devastating
B. venial
C. pervasive Blank (ii)
D. generic
E. limited
F. complete Blank (iii)
G. unexpected
H. mental
I. physical

5. The publishers, unwilling to (i)____ the entire risk, insisted that the author pay half the cost of the initial print run of his (ii)____ new book.

A. hedge
B. shoulder
C. mitigate Blank (ii)
D. unexceptionable
E. controversial
F. jaundiced

6. Science advances (i)____ as (ii)____ change abruptly and we are forced to stop and reorient ourselves to view old information in new ways.

A. exponentially
B. inexorably
C. jerkily Blank (ii)
D. paradigms
E. axioms
F. continuities

7. The game of chess is an example of a ___ information system: the pieces sit inertly on the board until the players move them according to known rules.

A. interactive
B. passive
C. cybernetic
D. disruptive
E. logistic

8. A highly intelligent person often thinks (i)____; a few snippets of information can trigger a (ii)____ conclusion that might not stand up to closer, and (iii)____, scrutiny.

A. too deeply
B. too warily
C. too quickly Blank (ii)
D. firm
E. labored
F. hasty Blank (iii)
G. slower
H. precipitous
I. overt

9. Major philosophical (i)____ about morality, identity and rationality, for example, can often be (ii)____ by thought experiments: short and simple expositions that pose an abstract and complex problem in a concrete manner with all the (iii)____ factors removed.

A. certitudes
B. dilemmas
C. dogmas Blank (ii)
D. mimicked
E. illuminated
F. evoked Blank (iii)
G. extraneous
H. inherent
I. pivotal

10. All good comic writers use humor to ____, not to side-step the problems of human behavior.

A. amuse
B. avert
C. juxtapose
D. confront
E. solve



1. A
2. CD
3. CDH
4. AFI
5. BE
6. CD
7. B
8. CFG
9. BEG
10. D

1. When staying in a hotel, Bernard would arrange for his valet to bring him his newspaper in the dining room so that everyone would realize that he had a manservant; this (i)____ embarrassed his nephew who, though equally rich, preferred a more (ii)____ life-style.

A. ostentation
B. arrogance
C. dissimulation Blank (ii)
D. opulent
E. libertine
F. understated

2. Although he was finally (i)____, the years of (ii)____ tore apart his social circle, ruined his health and (iii)____ his mind.

A. incriminated
B. vindicated
C. acclaimed Blank (ii)
D. dedication
E. self-doubt
F. suspicion Blank (iii)
G. sharpened
H. deranged
I. mellowed
3. As Gerard (i)____ the (ii)____ that greeted his work, he became increasingly smug.

A. repudiated
B. humbly accepted
C. basked in Blank (ii)
D. accolades
E. opprobrium
F. lack of interest

4. It is a common complaint that people today have a short attention span. But is it that people are (i)____ if the television camera (ii)____ a view, or is it that the (iii)____ from one angle to another has trained the viewer to expect variety?

A. satisfied
B. fascinated
C. impatient Blank (ii)
D. lingers over
E. cuts short
F. rapidly changes Blank (iii)
G. constant shift
H. delay in moving
I. inability to move

5. The (i)____ and virtuosity required of a jazz player make jazz seem to lack (ii)____; this apparently amorphous flow can make it hard for people with traditional expectations of musical stability to acquire a taste for this genre.

A. controlled playing
B. inventiveness
C. emotional distance Blank (ii)
D. inherent structure
E. underlying rhythm
F. controlled emotions
6. An artist’s preliminary sketches are often a ____of a subject; on the basis of these sketches the artist makes a decision on his or her approach to the final painting.

A. reconnaissance
B. caricature
C. vignette
D. pastiche
E. cameo

7. Taking antibiotics for a viral infection may, it is true, be ____ ; however, in certain cases a course of these drugs can actually ward off opportunistic bacterial infections.

A. justified
B. enough
C. recommended
D. ineffective
E. curative

8. Rock music has often been credited with (or decried for) containing (i)____ messages, purportedly to influence the minds of (ii)____ listeners.

A. criminal
B. overt
C. subliminal Blank (ii)
D. preordained
E. unsuspecting
F. covert

9. It cannot be denied that without creative reasoning it would not have been possible to (i)____ of classical physics. Yet classical physics has no contribution to make to the understanding of (ii)_____. This kind of (iii)____ is surprisingly common in logic as well as in life.

A. dispute the value
B. lay the foundations
C. understand the basics Blank (ii)
D. creative reasoning
E. other sciences
F. the arts Blank (iii)
G. circular reasoning
H. inflexibility
I. symmetry

10. During a decade of (i)____, social scientists sought to (ii)____ the idea of the family as a healthy and stabilizing force, and replace it with the view that the family was (iii)____.

A. moderation
B. conservatism
C. iconoclasm Blank (ii)
D. promote
E. debunk
F. iconize Blank (iii)
G. moribund
H. progressive
I. paramount



1. AF
2. BFH
3. CD
4. CDG
5. BD
6. A
7. D
8. CE
9. BDI
10. CEG


1. Today Wegener’s theory is (i)____ ; however, he died an outsider treated with (ii)____ by the scientific establishment.

A. unsupported
B. unchallenged
C. undervalued Blank (ii)
D. reverence
E. disdain
F. impartiality

2. The revolution in art has not lost its steam; it ____ on as fiercely as ever.

A. trudges
B. meanders
C. edges
D. ambles
E. rages

3. Each occupation has its own ____ ; bankers, lawyers and computer professionals, for example, all use among themselves language which outsiders have difficulty following.

A. merits
B. disadvantages
C. rewards
D. jargon
E. problems

4. ____ by nature, Jones spoke very little even to his own family members.

A. garrulous
B. equivocal
C. taciturn
D. arrogant
E. gregarious

5. Biological clocks are of such (i)____ adaptive value to living organisms, that we would expect most organisms to (ii)____ them, and, indeed, we find that such clocks are virtually (iii)____.

A. meager
B. ambivalent
C. clear Blank (ii)
D. eschew
E. possess
F. select Blank (iii)
G. ubiquitous
H. unknown
I. compulsory

6. The revolutionaries working to improve the lives of the peasants faced an (i)____ task; the peasants were the least (ii)____ of all people, bound by tradition and (iii)____ by superstitions.

A. unwarranted
B. uphill
C. unacceptable Blank (ii)
D. free
E. reactionary
F. enthralled Blank (iii)
G. rejected
H. obscured
I. fettered

7. Many people at that time believed that spices help preserve food; however, Hall found that many marketed spices were ____ bacteria, moulds and yeasts.

A. devoid of
B. teeming with
C. improved by
D. destroyed by
E. active against

8. If there is nothing to absorb the energy of sound waves, they travel on (i)____ , but their intensity (ii)____ as they travel further from their source.

A. indefinitely
B. erratically
C. slowly Blank (ii)
D. alleviates
E. diminishes
F. mitigates

9. This recent evaluation of two artists whose works even experts find difficult to (i)____, reveals a surprising (ii)____ in their temperaments: Palmer was reserved and courteous, Frazer (iii)____ and boastful.

A. evaluate
B. distinguish
C. critique Blank (ii)
D. similarity
E. difference
F. constraint Blank (iii)
G. choleric
H. tractable
I. phlegmatic

10. The intellectual flexibility inherent in a multicultural nation has been (i)____ in classrooms where emphasis on British-American literature has not reflected the cultural (ii)____ of our country.

A. inculcated
B. encouraged
C. stifled Blank (ii)
D. unanimity
E. diversity
F. aspirations



1. BE
2. E
3. D
4. C
5. CEG
6. BDI
7. B
8. AE
9. BEG
10. CE


1. Unwilling to admit that they had been in error, the researchers tried to ____ their case with more data obtained from dubious sources.

A. ascertain
B. buttress
C. refute
D. absolve
E. dispute

2. Archaeology is a poor profession; modest sums are available for excavating sites and even more (i)____ amounts for preserving the excavations. As a result many sites that are still to reveal even a fraction of their potentially vital information have been (ii)____ and left to the forces of Nature. Re-opening such sites in the future will be all but (iii)____.

A. paltry
B. controversial
C. abundant Blank (ii)
D. abandoned
E. overworked
F. denuded Blank (iii)
G. trivial
H. impossible
I. rewarding
3. The student was extremely foolhardy; he had the ____ to question the senior professor’s judgment.

A. wisdom
B. temerity
C. interest
D. trepidation
E. condescension

4. The formerly (i)____ waters of the lake have become (ii)____. So even though the waters are teeming with life, fish are no longer visible from the surface.

A. murky
B. stagnant
C. pellucid Blank (ii)
D. tranquil
E. verdant
F. turbid
5. After the accident, the nerves to her arm were damaged and so the muscles ____ through disuse.

A. atrophied
B. contracted
C. elongated
D. invigorated
E. dwindled

6. Some critics maintain that Tennyson’s poetry is uneven, ranging from the (i)____ to the (ii)____.

A. succinct
B. trite
C. sublime Blank (ii)
D. laconic
E. sonorous
F. inspired

7. The immune system is capable of distinguishing self from other at the cellular level. After grafting, unless the immune system is effectively (i)____, there is a (ii)____ of lymphocytes in the lymph glands; the newly produced lymphocytes then move in to (iii)____ the foreign tissue.

A. primed
B. suppressed
C. activated Blank (ii)
D. reduction
E. proliferation
F. stasis Blank (iii)
G. stimulate
H. regenerate
I. attack

8. One (i)____ of the new scheme is that it might actually (ii)____ just those applicants that it was intended to encourage.

A. attraction
B. highlight
C. drawback Blank (ii)
D. induce
E. daunt
F. attract

9. Corruption is (i)____ our society; the integrity of even senior officials is (ii)____.

A. rife in
B. endangered throughout
C. alien to Blank (ii)
D. suspect
E. intact
F. unquestioned

10. In their day to day decision making, many senior managers do not follow the apparently (i)____ model favored by orthodox management experts, but rather rely on intuitive processes that often appear (ii)____ and (iii)____.

A. conscientious
B. normal
C. rational Blank (ii)
D. thoughtful
E. cerebral
F. capricious Blank (iii)
G. logical
H. iconoclastic
I. deliberate



1. B
2. ADH
3. B
4. CF
5. A
6. BF
7. BEI
8. CE
9. AD
10. CFH


1. He was treated like a ____ and cast out from his community.

A. ascetic
B. prodigy
C. prodigal
D. pariah
E. tyro

2. The teacher accused me of (i)____ because my essay was so similar to that of another student. Once I was able to (ii)____ myself, the teacher viewed the other student’s denials with more (iii)____.

A. plagiarism
B. procrastination
C. decorum Blank (ii)
D. vindicate
E. inculpate
F. reprieve Blank (iii)
G. credulity
H. cognizance
I. skepticism

3. We live in a ____ age; everyone thinks that maximizing pleasure is the point of life.

A. ubiquitous
B. propitious
C. sporadic
D. corrupt
E. hedonistic

4. After having subjected the patient to an aggressive course of treatment that in itself could be (i)____, the doctor was thankful that the disease had gone into (ii)____ . He was able to tell the patient that symptoms might (iii)____ for many years.

A. refulgent
B. life-enhancing
C. life-threatening Blank (ii)
D. remission
E. quarantine
F. sequestration Blank (iii)
G. not recur
H. persist
I. malinger

5. People from all over the world are sent by their doctors to breathe the pure, (i)____ air in this mountain region to counteract the (ii)____ effects of their urban existence.

A. insalubrious
B. soporific
C. invigorating Blank (ii)
D. deracinating
E. stimulating
F. debilitating

6. As were many colonial administrators, Gregory was (i)____ in his knowledge of the grammar of the local language, though his accent was almost (ii)____ .

A. deficient
B. faultless
C. erratic Blank (ii)
D. unintelligible
E. germane
F. stentorian

7. Though Adam Bede is presented to us by the author as ____ fiction, there are none of the life-like meanderings of the story of Amos Barton.

A. realistic
B. romantic
C. imaginative
D. educational
E. entertaining

8. There is a general (i)____ in the United States that our ethics are declining and that out moral standards are (ii)____ . That is not to say, however, that (iii)____ will translate into action.

A. complaint
B. optimism
C. cliché Blank (ii)
D. improving
E. deteriorating
F. resurgent Blank (iii)
G. morality
H. awareness
I. belligerence

9. Homo sapiens, the proud splitter of the atom, inventor of the electronic computer, (i)____ of the genetic code may be humbled by a lowly (ii)____ of the sewers and soils – the microbe.

A. designer
B. author
C. decipherer Blank (ii)
D. creation
E. denizen
F. rodent

10. After centuries of (i)____, this philosopher’s thesis is enjoying a surprising (ii)____ .

A. limelight
B. obscurity
C. longevity Blank (ii)
D. renaissance
E. decimation
F. neglect



1. D
2. ADI
3. E
4. CDG
5. CF
6. BD
7. A
8. AEH
9. CE
10. BD


1. Scrooge, in the famous novel by Dickens, was a ____ ; he hated the rest of mankind.

A. misanthrope
B. hypochondriac
C. philanthropist
D. hedonist
E. sybarite

2. A businessman must (i)____ his horizons; a (ii)____ attitude will get you nowhere in this age of global communications.

A. limit
B. foresee
C. widen Blank (ii)
D. parochial
E. moderate
F. comprehensive

3. Our bookshelves at home display a range of books on wide-ranging subjects and in many languages, reflecting the ____ tastes of our family members.

A. anomalous
B. limited
C. arcane
D. furtive
E. eclectic

4. We humans are selfish creatures, continuing to (i)____ the use of plastic bags, those (ii)____ symbols of consumer society. Wherever you travel you see them clogging drains, polluting beaches and generally threatening the well-being of the biosphere.

A. condone
B. attenuate
C. abrogate Blank (ii)
D. ubiquitous
E. fleeting
F. covert

5. The preliminary review concludes that Dr. Stuart needs to (i)____ his argument with more experimental data. In its current avatar his thesis is so (ii)____ that it must be deemed (iii)____.

A. define
B. bolster
C. culminate Blank (ii)
D. exigent
E. monumental
F. slight Blank (iii)
G. succinct
H. profound
I. inadequate

6. After an initially warm reception by most reviewers and continued ____ by conservative thinkers, Bloom’s work came under heavy fire.

A. criticism
B. endorsement
C. denigration
D. counterattack
E. refutation

7. Through the 19th Century, the classics of Western Civilization were considered the (i)____ of wisdom and culture, and an (ii)____ person – by definition – knew them well.

A. repository
B. obituary
C. frontispiece Blank (ii)
D. educated
E. ecclesiastical
F. obtuse

8. In this biography we are given a glimpse of the young man (i)____ pursuing the path of the poet despite (ii)____ and rejection slips.

A. unsuccessfully
B. sporadically
C. doggedly Blank (ii)
D. acclaim
E. disappointment
F. encouragement

9. While unwilling to forgo the benefits of standardized testing, many European countries are seeking to (i)____ individual (ii)____ which state examinations with their (iii)____ growth have bought in their train.

A. increase control over
B. diminish the check on
C. increase awareness of Blank (ii)
D. spontaneity
E. limitations
F. persecution Blank (iii)
G. randomizing effects
H. tyrannous growth
I. empowering actions

10. In keeping with his own (i)____ in international diplomacy, Churchill proposed a personal meeting of heads of government, but the effort was (ii)____ , as the temper of the times was (iii)____.

A. peccadilloes
B. aversions
C. predilections Blank (ii)
D. doomed to failure
E. instantly accepted
F. considered worthwhile Blank (iii)
G. amicable
H. auspicious
I. inimical



1. A
2. CD
3. E
4. AD
5. BFI
6. B
7. AD
8. CE
9. BDH
10. CDI


1. Stephen was always (i)____ ; in fact, his own father described him as having a(n) (ii)____ vacillation.

A. indecisive
B. earnest
C. volatile Blank (ii)
D. concern for
E. propensity for
F. aversion to

2. The cricket match seemed ____ to our guests; they were used to watching sports in which the action is over in a couple of hours at the most.

A. unintelligible
B. inconsequential
C. interminable
D. implausible
E. evanescent

3. Our present accountant is most (i)____ ; unlike the previous (ii)____ incumbent, he has never made a mistake in all the years that he has worked for the firm.

A. pusillanimous
B. punctilious
C. asinine Blank (ii)
D. craven
E. unreliable
F. mercenary

4. The refugee’s poor grasp of English is hardly an _____ problem; she can attend classes and improve within a matter of months.

A. implausible
B. insuperable
C. inconsequential
D. evocative
E. injudicious

5. The (i)____ shades of meaning, and still subtler echoes of association, make language an instrument which scarcely anything short of genius can wield with (ii)____ and (iii)____ .

A. eloquent
B. nuanced
C. stygian Blank (ii)
D. sincerity
E. certainty
F. hope Blank (iii)
G. alacrity
H. precision
I. disinterest

6. His musical tastes are certainly ____ ; he has recordings ranging from classical piano performances to rock concerts, jazz and even Chinese opera.

A. antediluvian
B. eclectic
C. harmonious
D. sonorous
E. dazzling

7. All the truly outstanding breakthroughs in this area have come from historians who have been willing to adopt innovative techniques and pursue (i)____ lines of inquiry. Yet we should not (ii)____ the more (iii)____ research, which, after all, has given us the solid core of our knowledge of this important era.

A. conservative
B. unorthodox
C. hidebound Blank (ii)
D. decry
E. applaud
F. acknowledge Blank (iii)
G. moribund
H. convergent
I. mundane

8. Before his marriage the Duke had led an austere existence and now regarded the affectionate, somewhat (i)____ behavior of his young wife as simply (ii)____ .

A. restrained
B. frivolous
C. ungainly Blank (ii)
D. delightful
E. sublime
F. puerile

9. Wilson (i)____ that human beings inherit a tendency to feel an affinity and awe for other living things, in the same way that we are (ii)____ to be inquisitive or to protect our young at all costs.

A. contends
B. fears
C. demurs Blank (ii)
D. predisposed
E. taught
F. encouraged

10. The pond was a place of reek and corruption, of ____ smells and of oxygen-starved fish breathing through laboring gills.

A. fragrant
B. evocative
C. dolorous
D. resonant
E. fetid



1. AE
2. C
3. BE
4. B
5. BEH
6. B
7. BDI
8. BF
9. AD
10. E


1. The crew of the air balloon ____ the sand bags to help the balloon rise over the hill.

A. capsized
B. jettisoned
C. salvaged
D. augmented
E. enumerated

2. We were not fooled by his (i)____ arguments; his plan was (ii)____ . That even he was (iii)____ by his own reasoning was apparent from his unenthusiastic demeanor.

A. specious
B. cogent
C. labyrinthine Blank (ii)
D. obviously untenable
E. clearly brilliant
F. cunningly contrived Blank (iii)
G. duped
H. persuaded
I. unconvinced

3. Hawkins is ____ in his field; no other contemporary scientist commands the same respect.

A. disparaged
B. ignominious
C. obsolete
D. anachronistic
E. preeminent

4. The model paraded in front of the celebrities with (i)____ ; it was impossible to tell that this was her (ii)____.

A. trepidation
B. consternation
C. panache Blank (ii)
D. first assignment
E. normal gait
F. real persona

5. English words and expressions have come into being (i)____, and some common expressions are decidedly illogical. The term lead pencil, for example, is a (ii)____ ; pencils are filled with graphite not lead.

A. haphazardly
B. rationally
C. ab initio Blank (ii)
D. misdemeanor
E. misnomer
F. euphemism

6. When the (i)____ weather forced us to stay indoors, we resorted to (ii)____ board games to pass the time. Anything, however (iii)____, was better in our present troubled state of mind than sitting in silence.

A. congenial
B. restorative
C. inclement Blank (ii)
D. inane
E. exhilarating
F. challenging Blank (iii)
G. time-consuming
H. vacuous
I. versatile

7. It will be hard to (i)____ Leonid now that you have so (ii)____ him.

A. indict
B. mollify
C. lampoon Blank (ii)
D. subjugated
E. incensed
F. bemused

8. Edward was understandably upset that he had lost the position, but he was (i)____ by the conviction that he had done nothing to (ii)____ the dismissal.

A. saddened
B. miffed
C. consoled Blank (ii)
D. merit
E. mar
F. delay

9. She was roundly condemned for her ____ ; she betrayed the woman to whom she owed her success.

A. truculence
B. perfidy
C. serendipity
D. pragmatism
E. discernment

10. Our grandfather was an entertaining (i)____; he used to (ii)____ us with marvelous anecdotes that we, in our childlike simplicity, (iii)____.

A. raconteur
B. rascal
C. curmudgeon Blank (ii)
D. intimidate
E. regale
F. bore Blank (iii)
G. accepted unquestioningly
H. debated ferociously
I. debunked readily



1. B
2. ADI
3. E
4. CD
5. AE
6. CDH
7. BE
8. CD
9. B
10. AEG


1. The parliamentary session degenerated into (i)____ with politicians (ii)____ each other and refusing to (iii)____.

A. mayhem
B. obsolescence
C. authoritarianism Blank (ii)
D. trading banter with
E. hurling invectives at
F. staring pointedly at Blank (iii)
G. escalate the situation
H. challenge the opposition
I. come to order

2. Contrary to his reputation, the admiral was not a (i)_____. He (ii)____ his order to attack when he saw the white flag raised by the enemy sailors, and was actually relieved that he could bring an end to the (iii)____.

A. bloodthirsty man
B. pacifist
C. pedant Blank (ii)
D. countermanded
E. reiterated
F. commandeered Blank (iii)
G. truce
H. hiatus
I. hostilities

3. In a fit of ____ she threw out the valuable statue simply because it had belonged to her ex-husband.

A. pique
B. goodwill
C. contrition
D. pedantry
E. prudence

4. Many 17th century buildings that are still in existence have been so (i)____ by successive owners that the original layout is no longer (ii)____ beneath the sometimes much-needed, but usually (iii)____ attempts to personalize or improve.

A. preserved
B. transmogrified
C. decimated Blank (ii)
D. discernible
E. extant
F. enshrouded Blank (iii)
G. adept
H. grotesque
I. tasteful

5. Since ancient times sculpture has been considered the prerogative of men; women sculptors have, until recently, consistently met with (i)____, or even (ii)____.

A. discouragement
B. vilification
C. concern Blank (ii)
D. ridicule
E. approbation
F. tolerance

6. (i)____ at this time would be inadvisable; we have not yet accumulated sufficient expertise to warrant anything other than a (ii)____ approach.

A. Circuitous proceedings
B. Vacillation
C. Precipitate action Blank (ii)
D. decisive
E. direct
F. cautious

7. I cannot conclude this preface without ____ that an early and untimely death should have prevented Persius from giving a more finished appearance to his works.

A. rejoicing
B. lamenting
C. affirming
D. commenting
E. mentioning

8. Harding was unable to (i)____ the results of the survey; although entirely unexpected, the figures were obtained by a market research firm with an (ii)____ reputation.

A. believe
B. accept
C. discount Blank (ii)
D. mediocre
E. unenviable
F. impeccable

9. The quantum theory was initially regarded as absurd, unnatural and ____ with common sense.

A. consanguineous
B. discernible
C. incompatible
D. decipherable
E. consistent

10. Do not be fooled by her (i)____ manner; her superficial (ii)____ belies her worldliness.

A. unsophisticated
B. gregarious
C. off-hand Blank (ii)
D. proficiency
E. naiveté
F. seriousness



1. AEI
2. ADI
3. A
4. BDH
5. AD
6. CF
7. B
8. CF
9. C
10. AE


1. The success of the business venture ____ his expectations; he never thought that the firm would prosper.

A. confirmed
B. belied
C. nullified
D. fulfilled
E. ratified

2. The journalist (i)____ the efforts of the drug squad to control drug peddling, claiming that they had actually (ii)____ the problem.

A. commended
B. deprecated
C. noted Blank (ii)
D. delineated
E. mollified
F. exacerbated

3. Since the Romans failed to subjugate the tribes in Northern Britain, they built a wall in a (i)____ attempt to (ii)____ the natives. After all, what wall can (iii)____ the determined?

A. seemingly overoptimistic
B. thoroughgoing
C. successful Blank (ii)
D. intimidate
E. exclude
F. barricade Blank (iii)
G. deter
H. conquer
I. circumscribe

4. The professor became increasingly ____ in later years, flying into a rage whenever he was opposed.

A. taciturn
B. voluble
C. subdued
D. contrite
E. irascible

5. To Simon, not usually so (i)____, their bantering talk seemed (ii)____. Actually their exchanges masked underlying (iii)____.

A. inscrutable
B. unperceptive
C. perspicacious Blank (ii)
D. amicable
E. exasperating
F. hostile Blank (iii)
G. antagonism
H. assumptions
I. geniality

6. The new systematic nomenclature was so (i)____ that many chemists preferred to (ii)____ the older trivial names that were at least shorter. At least, that is the ostensible reason. Actually, tradition seems to carry more weight than (iii)____ with some scientists.

A. succinct
B. cumbersome
C. irrational Blank (ii)
D. revert to
E. adopt
F. suspend Blank (iii)
G. chronology
H. longevity
I. system

7. Even though the auditors (i)____ the accountant, his reputation, hitherto unblemished, was (ii)____ by the allegations of fraud.

A. indicted
B. betrayed
C. vindicated Blank (ii)
D. enhanced
E. tarnished
F. condoned

8. Many so-called social playwrights are distinctly ____ ; rather than allowing the members of the audience to form their own opinions, these writers force a viewpoint on the viewer.

A. conciliatory
B. prolific
C. iconoclastic
D. didactic
E. contumacious

9. The archaeologist, viewing the fragmentary remains of the ancient city, reflected on the (i)____ of human (ii)____ .

A. impermanence
B. dearth
C. durability Blank (ii)
D. endeavor
E. thought
F. humility

10. He was normally entirely (i)____ , but in the embarrassing situation in which he found himself he felt compelled to (ii)____.

A. equable
B. considerate
C. forthright Blank (ii)
D. concede
E. prevaricate
F. capitulate



1. B
2. BF
3. AEG
4. E
5. BDG
6. BDI
7. CE
8. D
9. AD
10. CE



Reading Comprehension

Should we really care for the greatest actors of the past could we have them before us? Should we find them too different from our accent of thought, of feeling, of speech, in a thousand minute particulars which are of the essence of all three? Dr. Doran’s 5 long and interesting records of the triumphs of Garrick, and other less familiar, but in their day hardly less astonishing, players, do not relieve one of the doubt. Garrick himself, as sometimes happens with people who have been the subject of much anecdote and other conversation, here as elsewhere, bears no very distinct 10 figure. One hardly sees the wood for the trees. On the other hand, the account of Betterton, “perhaps the greatest of English actors,” is delightfully fresh. That intimate friend of Dryden, Tillatson, Pope, who executed a copy of the actor’s portrait by Kneller which is still extant, was worthy of their friendship; 15 his career brings out the best elements in stage life. The stage in these volumes presents itself indeed not merely as a mirror of life, but as an illustration of the utmost intensity of life, in the fortunes and characters of the players. Ups and downs, generosity, dark fates, the most delicate goodness, have nowhere 20 been more prominent than in the private existence of those devoted to the public mimicry of men and women. Contact with the stage, almost throughout its history, presents itself as a kind of touchstone, to bring out the bizarrerie, the theatrical tricks and contrasts, of the actual world.

1. In the expression “One hardly sees the wood for the trees”, the author apparently intends the word trees to be analogous to

A. features of Doran’s language style
B. details learned from oral sources
C. personality of a famous actor
D. detail’s of Garrick’s life
E. stage triumphs of an astonishing player

2. The doubt referred to in line 7 concerns whether

A. the stage personalities of the past would appeal on a personal level to people like the author
B. their contemporaries would have understood famous actors
C. the acting of famous stage personalities would appeal to us today
D. Garrick was as great as he is portrayed
E. historical records can reveal personality

3. Information supplied in the passage is sufficient to answer which of the following questions?
(Select ALL answer choices that apply)

A. Who did Doran think was probably the best English actor?
B. What did Doran think of Garrick?
C. Would the author give a definite answer to the first question posed in the passage?

A sanctuary may be defined as a place where Man is passive and the rest of Nature active. Till quite recently Nature had her own sanctuaries, where man either did not go at all or only as a tool-using animal in comparatively small numbers. But now, in 5 this machinery age, there is no place left where man cannot go with overwhelming forces at his command. He can strangle to death all the nobler wild life in the world to-day. To-morrow he certainly will have done so, unless he exercises due foresight and self-control in the mean time.

10 There is not the slightest doubt that birds and mammals are now being killed off much faster than they can breed. And it is always the largest and noblest forms of life that suffer most. The whales and elephants, lions and eagles, go. The rats and flies, and all mean parasites, remain. This is inevitable 15 in certain cases. But it is wanton killing off that I am speaking of to-night. Civilized man begins by destroying the very forms of wild life he learns to appreciate most when he becomes still more civilized. The obvious remedy is to begin conservation at an earlier stage, when it is easier and better 20 in every way, by enforcing laws for close seasons, game preserves, the selective protection of certain species, and sanctuaries. I have just defined a sanctuary as a place where man is passive
and the rest of Nature active. But this general definition is too absolute for any special case. The mere fact that man has to 25 protect a sanctuary does away with his purely passive attitude. Then, he can be beneficially active by destroying pests and 7 parasites, like bot-flies or mosquitoes, and by finding antidotes for diseases like the epidemic which periodically kills off the rabbits and thus starves many of the carnivora to death. But, 30 except in cases where experiment has proved his intervention to be beneficial, the less he upsets the balance of Nature the better, even when he tries to be an earthly Providence.

4. The author implies that his first definition of a sanctuary is

A. totally wrong
B. somewhat idealistic
C. unhelpful
D. indefensible
E. immutable

5. The author’s argument that destroying bot-flies and mosquitoes would be a beneficial action is most weakened by all of the following except

A. parasites have an important role to play in the regulation of populations
B. the elimination of any species can have unpredictable effects on the balance of nature
C. the pests themselves are part of the food chain
D. these insects have been introduced to the area by human activities
E. elimination of these insects would require the use of insecticides that kill a wide range of insects

6. It can be inferred that the passage is

A. part of an article in a scientific journal
B. extracted from the minutes of a nature club
C. part of a speech delivered to an educated audience
D. a speech delivered in a court of law
E. from a polemical article published in a magazine

7. The purpose of the final paragraph is

A. to sum up the main points of the author’s argument
B. to urge a solution to an increasingly pressing problem
C. to qualify the author’s definition of an important term
D. to propose a program
E. to suggest that man should not intervene in natural environments

8. Answer this question based on the information in the paragraph below.

It has been suggested that long-term prisoners, on release from jail, be given a reasonable state pension to reduce the likelihood of their resorting to crime. Most people instinctively reject the suggestion as they feel it would be like rewarding criminal activity.

The supporters of the prisoners’ pension scheme have criticized those who reject this possibility, by claiming that for the critics…

Which of the following is the most logical completion of the sentence above?

A. emotion is more important than justice
B. punishment for criminals is more important than crime prevention
C. crime prevention is not an important issue
D. money has too high a value
E. the law should not be concerned with what happens after jail




1. B
2. A
3. AC
4. B
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. B


The first and most important rule of legitimate or popular government, that is to say, of government whose object is the good of the people, is therefore, as I have observed, to follow in everything the general will. But to follow this will it is 5 necessary to know it, and above all to distinguish it from the particular will, beginning with one’s self: this distinction is always very difficult to make, and only the most sublime virtue can afford sufficient illumination for it. As, in order to will, it is necessary to be free, a difficulty no less great than the 10 former arises — that of preserving at once the public liberty and the authority of government. Look into the motives which have induced men, once united by their common needs in a general society, to unite themselves still more intimately by means of civil societies: you will find no other motive than that of 15 assuring the property, life and liberty of each member by the protection of all. But can men be forced to defend the liberty of any one among them, without trespassing on that of others? And how can they provide for the public needs, without alienating the individual property of those who are forced to contribute to 20 them? With whatever sophistry all this may be covered over, it is certain that if any constraint can be laid on my will, I am no longer free, and that I am no longer master of my own property, if any one else can lay a hand on it. This difficulty, which would have seemed insurmountable, has been removed, like the first, by 25 the most sublime of all human institutions, or rather by a divine inspiration, which teaches mankind to imitate here below the unchangeable decrees of the Deity. By what inconceivable art has a means been found of making men free by making them subject; of using in the service of the State the properties, the persons and 30 even the lives of all its members, without constraining and without consulting them; of confining their will by their own admission; of overcoming their refusal by that consent, and forcing them to punish themselves, when they act against their own will? How can it be that all should obey, yet nobody take upon him to command, and that all 35 should serve, and yet have no masters, but be the more free, as, in apparent subjection, each loses no part of his liberty but what might be hurtful to that of another? These wonders are the work of law. It is to law alone that men owe justice and liberty. It is this salutary organ of the will of all which establishes, in civil right, the 40 natural equality between men. It is this celestial voice which dictates to each citizen the precepts of public reason, and teaches him to act according to the rules of his own judgment, and not to behave inconsistently with himself. It is with this voice alone that political rulers should speak when they command; for no sooner does 45 one man, setting aside the law, claim to subject another to his private will, than he departs from the state of civil society, and confronts him face to face in the pure state of nature, in which obedience is prescribed solely by necessity.

1. The paradox in line 28 is resolved according to the author when an individual

A. submits to the rule of law and thus is at liberty to do anything that does not harm another person
B. behaves according to the natural rights of man and not according to imposed rules
C. agrees to follow the rule of law even when it is against his best interests
D. belongs to a society which guarantees individual liberty at all times
E. follows the will of the majority

2. The author’s attitude to law in this passage is best conveyed as

A. respect for its inalienable authority
B. extolling its importance as a human institution
C. resignation to the need for its imposition on the majority
D. acceptance of its restrictions
E. praise for its divine origin

3. The author would agree with all of the following except

A. government must maintain its authority without unduly compromising personal liberty
B. individual freedom is threatened in the absence of law
C. justice cannot be ensured in the absence of law
D. political leaders should use the law as their guide to correct leadership
E. the law recognizes that all men are capable of recognizing what is in the general interest

The tale of Piltdown Man, the most infamous forgery in the contentious detective story of the origins of mankind, began in 1912. On December 18 that year Charles Dawson, a well-known amateur British archaeologist, and Arthur Smith Woodward, of 5 the British Museum of Natural History, announced the discovery of some amazing human fossils. The remains comprised nine pieces of skull, a broken jaw with two teeth in place, a few stone tools, and some animal bones, all of which had been discovered on a farm near Piltdown Common in Sussex.

10 When pieced together the skull looked distinctly human. Although Piltdown Man, as the hominid became known, had unusually thick bones, the brain case was large and rounded. There was no sign of prominent brow ridges or other apelike features. However, the shape of the jaw bone resembled that of an ape. The only human 15 characteristic of this jaw was the wear on the two molars, which were ground down flat, as is frequently true of hominids who eat tough or abrasive foods, such as seeds. In other words the creature had the jaw of an ape and the skull of Homo sapiens. The primitive stone tools found with these remains suggested a 20 remote age for Piltdown Man, perhaps the Early Pleistocene or even the Late Pliocene. (In 1912 experts thought the Pliocene lasted from 1 million to 600 000 years ago. Scientists now date it to between 5 million and 1.7 million years ago.) This date was also supported by some animal bones found with Piltdown Man.

25 To most scientists of the time, Piltdown Man fulfilled a prediction made by the pioneering evolutionist Charles Darwin, who had believed that humans and the apes could be connected genetically through a still undiscovered creature. Most significantly, it was half-human in precisely the feature 30 that was then accepted as the most important difference between humans and the apes – the brain. At this time there was little fossil evidence to contradict the idea that the brain was among the first of the human features to evolve.

As time went on, however, Homo erectus fossils were found in 35 Java and China, while in South Africa the australopithecines were being discovered. All these fossils had human-like jaws and teeth and relatively small brains in contrast to Piltdown Man’s large cranium and apelike jaw. The large brain simply did not fit with the rest of the fossil evidence. By 1948 40 scientists knew that bones buried in the earth gradually absorb fluorine. The older a bone, the more fluorine it contains. When the Piltdown materials were tested for fluorine, the skull and jaw fragments turned out to be much younger than the Early Pleistocene animal bones with which the skull 45 had been found.

Scientists were now very suspicious. In 1953 all the Piltdown material was tested for its authenticity. Not only was the recent age of the jaw and skull confirmed, but the jaw proved to be that of a modern orangutan, with the teeth filed down 50 in a quite obvious manner to imitate wear on human teeth. But the forger had not stopped there. A bone tool found with the remains had been made in recent times with a steel knife, which leaves different marks than does a stone flake or axe. The tools, as well as the animal bones, had been 55 taken from different archaeological sites.

Once the forgery was exposed by modem scientific analysis the mystery was no longer where Piltdown Man came in human evolution but who was responsible for the hoax, and why? Although Dawson, the discoverer of most of the Piltdown 60 material, is frequently singled out as the person responsible for this practical joke, there is no definite proof and the question is far from settled.

4. The Piltdown skull seemed distinctly human because it had
(Select ALL answer choices that apply)

A. a large brain
B. thick bones
C. brow ridges

5. The scientists of the time made which of the following mistakes

A. believed that fossil discoveries would reveal much about human origins
B. had preconceived ideas about what features an early hominid should have
C. followed the ideas of Darwin in the face of counterevidence
D. incorrectly judged the size of the brain
E. failed to examine other fossil evidence available at the time

6. The animal bones found buried with the Piltdown Man were all of the following except

A. shown to be genuinely Pleistocene
B. more recent than first thought
C. unconnected with the human remains
D. deliberately planted at the site
E. not originally from the Piltdown site

7. It can be inferred that it took so long to expose the forgery because

A. the forger was exceptionally clever making it difficult to detect the alterations
B. reliable techniques for dating rocks did not exist until recently
C. the bones were not subjected to close scrutiny until considerable contradictory evidence accumulated
D. the scientists had no reason to doubt the credibility of the team who made the discovery
E. similar fossils from other archeological sites had proved to be genuine

8. Answer this question based on the information in the paragraph below.

Most scientists agree that new lines of interdisciplinary research are the need of the hour. Even government committees on science have stressed the need for more interdisciplinary projects. Yet, of ten proposals for new interdisciplinary projects last year, only one was successfully funded. Some have suggested that this means that as yet researchers are not coming up with sufficiently persuasive projects, or that their proposals are not of high enough quality, or even that the reputations of these researchers is not high enough. However, the real reason probably lies in the way funding is organized. Funding is still allocated according to the old categories and there are no funds specifically for research that overlaps different subject areas.

The two parts in bold-face are related to each other in which of the following ways?

A. The first is a finding that the author finds unacceptable; the second is the author’s own position
B. The first is a finding that the author attempts to account for; the second is a finding that contradicts the author’s main conclusion.
C. The first is a fact that the author attempts to account for. The second is data that explicitly supports the author’s main conclusion.
D. The first is a position that the author opposes; the second is the author’s main position.
E. The first is a situation that the author finds paradoxical; the second is an assumption that the author uses to reinforce the paradox.



1. A
2. B
3. E
4. A
5. B
6. B
7. C
8. C